The Ancient Library

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THE ATHENIAN yevt). 103

a yevos) should be discovered at once; they were to be cited by their demes.' This agrees with the clause in the second section 77730? roil? e^erd^eiv ra yevrj /3ov\o/Jievov<;. Everything was done to prevent the yevos from having any influence whatever on politics: on the one hand the new citizens must be put on a level with the old, on the other hand men must exercise the,ir political power simply as citizens not as members of a yevos, and every effort was made to prevent members of a yevos from acting together.

I have now to establish, as far as it is possible, the use of the word tra-rpaOev. This form is found, I think, only once (Find. Nem. 7 70), but in the exact sense required. Evfei/tSa frdrpaBe 'Zwyeves, says Pindar, honouring a man by citing his clan. Hdrpa, however, occurs more fre­quently. It bore two distinct meanings, fatherhood (i.e. clan, and so equivalent to yevos) and fatherland. In the former sense it is defined by Dicaearchus as identical with yevos, and inscriptions prove that it was so employed in Thasos, Rhodes and other -places16, and Pindar uses it constantly as an equivalent of oikos and yevea™. Else­where (in old Ionic) according to the lexicons it was used almost always in the sense of Trarpi?".

Is it not permissible to suppose that in the sixth century B.C. irarpa was used in Attic, in a sense which might include both ideas (fatherhood and fatherland) and that trdrpadev at any rate bore the special sense of' by

16 F. H. G. ii 238. The inscriptions are cited by Gilbert, Handbuch ii p. 302.

16 Find. Nem. 4 77; 6 41; 8 46; Pyth. 8 38; Itthm. 5 (6) 63 (all referring to Aegina): Nem. 11 20 (referring to Tenedos).

17 In II. xiii 364 it is used in the sense of fatherhood; and in Hdt. vi 126 it would give a better sense if we could translate it descent.

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