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44 CHARACTER OF OLIGARCHY. [CH. I.
But both constitutions agreed in requiring for citizenship some definite qualifications other than free birth, and in thus drawing an absolute line between citizen and non-citizen. They differed from democracy, moreover, in their whole conception of the method of government; and in every detail of the constitution, in the appointment of magistrates, in the powers conferred upon them, in the question of sovereignty, they showed their divergence from the democratic theory. But the full treatment of these subjects must be reserved to a later chapter10.
20 See chapter v.