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§ 12] MORAL CLAIMS OF THE OLIGARCH. 43
But the effects of banausic employments on the mind were considered more serious. They enslaved the soul16; they reduced those who practised them to the level of the non-citizens, the slaves and aliens; they deprived them of freedom of action and compelled them to live at the disposal of others17. They were, in fact, assumed to degrade the mind as they degraded the body and to render men unfit for the duties of political life18.
The oligarch assumed then that wealth and leisure were necessary conditions of citizenship : that they conferred higher political ability than could be possessed by those who were compelled to gain a living by the exercise of laborious arts. The aristocrat went further and regarded money-making, whether pursued by industiy or by commerce, as unworthy of a free man and as a positive disqualification for citizenship. In, this respect, also, there was a marked contrast between the military aristocracy and the commercial oligarchy : for the former set a ban upon the arts and professions by which the latter was maintained ; and the sentiment of the philosophers in this respect is entirely aristocratic19.
perhaps because it implied a craven, 'warless' man. So TrovijpAs and /itox^pos may originally have had the same idea as /Sdrawros.
16 Xen. Mem. iv 2 22.
17 Ar. Ehet. i 9 1367 a 31 t\ev0(pov t)> ^ wpis &\\ov tfjv. (The same passage furnishes a humorous illustration of Greek feeling. It was considered the mark of a free man at Lacedaemon to wear the hair long otf ydp iyrir kop.&vto. fnj.Siov ovSiv voieiv tpyov ffrfrtK&v.) Cf. Pol. v 2 1337 b 17.
18 Xen. Oec. 4 2 tuiv Si aw/jATwv OTiXvvopfrw Kal at ^u^oi iro\ii appta-ffrbrcpai ytyvovrai.
19 Plato and Aristotle do not regard x/WTw/tAs with more favour than they regarded industry generally. In this respect they were entirely at variance with oligarchic sentiment.