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have briefly discussed the causes of constitutional change and traced the development of constitutions, in order to show the place occupied by oligarchy in this process. Two Appendices deal with some problems of early A-thenian history. In the fourth chapter the varieties of Oligarchy are discussed, and the last chapter is devoted to the organisation of oligarchic government. It is followed by an Appendix on the revolution of the Four Hundred at Athens.
Of modern books, I have made constant use of the second volume of Gilbert's Handbuch der griechischen Staatsalterthumer, which contains an invaluable collection of material. Mr Newman's Introduction to the Politics of Aristotle I have found most useful and suggestive. I have cited in my notes the other modern works to which I am indebted.
In preparing the work for press it is my pleasure to acknowledge most gratefully the help of Mr W. Wyse, of Trinity College, one of the adjudicators for the prize, who put many valuable notes at my disposal, and the kindness of Mr R. A. Neil, of Pembroke College, and of Mr J. W. Headlam of Bang's College, who read my proofs and gave me the benefit of many criticisms and suggestions.
pembroke college, cambridge. February 3, 1896.
[In the citations of Aristotle's Politics I have followed the text of Susemihl's small edition, as well as his numbering of the books. The first volume of Mr Newman's Politics is cited as 'Newman, Introduction.' References to Dr Gilbert's Handbuch are to the second German edition.]