The Ancient Library

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Aphorisms: " No less remarkable is the following saying: ' In jaundice it is a grave matter if the liver becomes in­durated.' Jaundice is a common and comparatively trivial symptom following or accompanying a large variety of diseases. In and by itself it is of little importance and almost always disappears spontaneously. There is a small group of pathological conditions, however, in which this is not the case. The commonest and most important of these are the fatal affections of cirrhosis and cancer of the liver, in which that organ may be felt to be enlarged and hard­ened. If therefore the liver can be so felt in a case of jaundice, it is, as the Aphorism says, of gravest import," in The Legacy of Greece, o.c., p. 232.

17. Largely Adams' Translation, o.c.

18. Adams' Translation, o.c.

19. A common Hippocratic operation was opening the patient's chest to relieve the accumulation of pus in cases of empyema, following pneumonia. Cf. Charles Singer, in The Legacy of Greece, o.c., p. 228.

One may note that the names of these two diseases and, for that matter, a considerable part of medical nomen­clature are from Hippocrates.

20. In The Legacy of Greece, o.c., p. 236.

21. This is apparent when he is seeking to orient him­self in his subject, as in the opening chapters of the De Partibus Animalium.

22. Assuredly Leonardo, if ever mortal man, is entitled to be called a universal genius; and his dissections of human bodies and animals were joined in his mind with mathematics and mechanics, though not with philosophy. But unhappily Leonardo's marvellous anatomical drawings remained unknown and exerted no influence upon other investigators, so far as may be ascertained. See H. Hop-stock, " Leonardo as Anatomist," in Charles Singer's Studies in the History and Method of Science, Oxford, 1921; II. 151-191.

23. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson, Historia Animalium, English Translation, Oxford, 1910; William Ogle, De Partibus Animalium, English Translation, Oxford, 1911;


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