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BYZANTINE PERIOD. 569

There are two Latin editions of Pappus : the first by Commandinus, Pesaro, 1588, fol., and the second by Manolessius, Bologna, 1660, fol. There is also a small portion of a short comment on a part of the fifth book of Ptolemy's Syntaxis, which Theon has pre­served and commented on (Syntaxis, Basle, 1538, p. 235, of Theon's commentary). This may be a part of the work mentioned by us as No. 3 ; for, though the portion in question is on the fifth book, yet perhaps the four books mentioned by Suidas are not the first four books.

III. theon (®eW), the younger, so called to distinguish him from the elder Theon, who lived in the time of Hadrian. Theon the younger was a native of Alexandrea, and father of the celebrated Hypatia. He is best known as an astronomer and geometer, and lived in the time of Theodo-sius the elder. Both Theons were heathens, a fact which the date of the second makes it desirable to state ; and each held the Platonism of his period. Of Theon of Alexandrea the following works have come down to us : 1. Scholia on Aratus. 2. An edition of Euclid. 3. A Commentary on the Almagest of Ptolemy, addressed to his son Epiphanius. 4. A Commentary on the Tables of Ptolemy.

The scholia on Aratus, of which there are at least two sets, are printed in the editions of that poet. In like manner, the commentary on the Almagest is given with many of the editions of Ptolemy. The commentary on the Tables of Ptolemy was published by Hal-ma, in three parts, 1822-25, 4to, Paris.

IV. hypatia ('Trama),1 a lady of Alexandrea, daughter of Theon, by whom she was instructed in philosophy and mathematics. She soon made such immense progress in these branches of knowledge, that she is said to have presided over the Neo- Platonic school of Plotinus at Alex­andrea, where she expounded the principles of his system to a numerous auditory. She appears to have been most graceful, modest, and beauti­ful, but nevertheless to have been a victim to slander and falsehood. She was accused of too much familiarity with Orestes, prefect of Alexandrea, and the charge spread among the clergy, who took up the notion that she interrupted the friendship of Orestes with their archbishop Cyril. In consequence of this, a number of them, at whose head was a reader named Peter, seized her in the street, and dragged her from her chariot into one of the churches, where they stripped her and tore her to pieces. Theodoret accuses Cyril of sanctioning this proceeding ; but Cave holds this to be incredible, though on no grounds except his own opinion of Cyril's general character. Synesius valued Hypatia highly, and addressed to her several letters. Suidas says that she married Isidorus, and wrote some works on astronomy and other subjects.

V. heron CHpwy) the younger, so called to distinguish him from Heron of Alexandrea, already mentioned, is supposed to have lived under Her-aclius (A.D. 610-641), The writings attributed to him are, 1. De Maclrinis Bellicis, published by Barocius (Latin), Venice, 1572, 4to. There is one Greek manuscript at Bologna. 2. Gcodesia (a term used in the sense of practical geometry). It was published (Latin), with the preceding, by Barocius. Montucla notices this as the first treatise in which the mode of finding the area of a triangle by means of its sides occurs. 3. De Ob-sidione repellenda ("Oirws xp?7 t^v r^s iroXiopKov(j,€vr)s Tr6\€(as

1 Smithy Diet. Biogr., s* v*

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