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566 GREEK LITERATURE,

the best and most complete edition. The title is as follows: Corpus Scriptoj-um Historic Byzantines. Editio emendatior et copiosior, consilio B. G. Niebuhrii C. F. instituta, auc-toritate Academies Litterarum Regies Borussicos continuata^ Bonn, 1828, &c.

CHAPTER LX.

SEVENTH OR BYZANTINE PERIOD— continued. GEOGRAPHERS.

I. marcianus (MopKKwfe),1 of Heraclea Pontica, a Greek geographer, lived after Ptolemy, whom he frequently quotes, and before Stephanus of Byzantium, who refers to him, but his exact date is uncertain. If he is the same Marcianus as the one mentioned by Synesius (Ep. 103) and Socrates (H. E., iv., 9), he must have lived at the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian era. He wrote a work in prose, .entitled "A Peri plus of the External Sea, both Eastern and Western, and of the largest Islands in it" (TLepiirXovs -n}s e£cw fra\do-Q*r]S, etfov re koi sffirepiov, ko.i r&v & avrp peyiffTwv vfawv). The term " External Sea" he used in opposition to the "Mediterranean," which, he says, had been sufficiently described by Artemidorus. This work was in two books, of which the former, on the Eastern and Southern seas, has come to us entire ; but of the latter, which treated of the Western and Northern seas, we possess only the last three chapters on Africa, and a mutilated one on the dis­tance from Rome to the principal cities of the world. In this work he chiefly follows Ptolemy, and in the calculation of the stadia he adopts the reckoning of Protagoras. He also made an epitome of the eleven books of the periplus of Artemidorus of Ephesus, but of this epitome we have only the introduction, and the periplus of Pontus, Bithynia, and Paphla-gonia. It was not, however, simply an abridgment of Artemidorus, for Marcianus tells us that he made use of the works of other geographers who had written descriptions of coasts. Marcianus also published an edition of Menippus of Pergamum, a geographer who lived in the time of Augustus. Some fragments of this are preserved.

The works of Marcianus are edited by Hudson, in the Geographi Grosci Minores, vol. i. ; by Miller, in his " Supplement aux dernieres editions des Petits Gtographes," Paris, 1839, 8vo ; and separately by Hoffmann, Marciani Periplus, &c., Leipzig, 1841, 8vo.

II. STEPHANUS,2 of Byzantium, called also stephanus byzantinus, was the author of a geographical lexicon, entitled Ethnica ('Eflpt/ca), of which, unfortunately, we possess only an epitome. There are few ancient writ­ ers of any importance of whom we know so little as of Stephanus. All that can be affirmed of him with certainty is, that he was a grammarian of Constantinople, and lived after the time of Arcadius and Honorius, and before that of Justinian II. His work was reduced to an epitome by a certain Hermolaus, who dedicated his abridgment to Justinian II. Ac­ cording to the title, the chief object of the work was to specify the gen­ tile names derived from the several names of places and countries in the 1 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Id. ib.

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