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BYZANTINE PERIOD.

The MS. was first discovered by ChoiseuI Gouffier and Yilloison in the library of Prince Morousi, at Constantinople, in 1781, and is now in the public library at Paris. In the same MS. was found another work of Ly-dus, Tlepi 5 10(77] fji€iS>yt or De Qstentis, on divination or augury. He wrote also TLepl wv&v crvyypa^j De Mensibus Liber, of which there are two epi­tomes or summaries and a fragment extant. 3. hierocles, called the Grammarian, to distinguish him from the philosopher of the same name, wrote a Synecdemos, or traveller's guide, in which he describes the sixty-four provinces of the Eastern Empire, and the nine hundred and thirty-five cities or towns contained in it. He appears certainly to have lived previous to the tenth century. 4. theophylactus, archbishop of Achris, in Bulgaria, in the latter part of the eleventh century, wrote a work " On the Education of Princes," intended for the younger Constantine, the son of Michael VII. Parapinaces. 5. alexis I. comnenus wrote Novum Ra-tionarium, or inventory of the revenues of the state, in imitation of Au­gustus. 6. A monk of unknown name, who lived under Alexis I.r wrote a book on the Antiquities of Constantinople, which gives a description of its buildings, monuments, &c. 7. matthjeus blastares, a monk, wrote, about 1305, an account of the numerous household charges and offices in the imperial palace of Constantinople. 8. georgius codintjs, surnamed Curopaldtes, lived in the latter age of the empire, and wrote " On the Dig­nities and Offices of the Church and Court of Constantinople." 9. The Emperor manuel pal^eologus wrote a book " on the Education of Princes." He also wrote "a Dialogue with a Turk, held at Ancyra, in Galatia," where Manuel was once stationed in winter quarters with his auxiliary corps, serving under Sultan Bajazet. This work, which is yet unpublished, is said to give an interesting view of the tottering condition of the once mighty empire toward the beginning of the fifteenth century. There are also sixty-six unpublished letters of Manuel in the public li­brary at Paris, which contain interesting allusions to the history of that period. *

Most of the Byzantine historians, chroniclers, and other writers, were collected and published in the great edition made by order and at the expense of Louis XIV., in 3G vols. fol., Paris, 1645-1711. The Jesuits Labbe and Maltrait, Petau and Poussines ; the Do­minicans Goar and Comb6fis, Professor Fabrot, Charles du Fresne Seigneur du Cange ; Allacci, the librarian of the Vatican ; Banduri, librarian at Florence ; Boivin, the king's librarian at Paris ; and Bouilliaud, a mathematician, were each intrusted with parts of this splendid work. The Greek text is accompanied with a Latin translation and notes. The last volume contains the Arabian Chronicle of Abu Ben Raheb, which serves to illus­trate Byzantine history. Another edition was published at Venice, in 23 vols. fol., 1729, and the following years, which contains several works omitted in the Paris edition, such as Phranza, Genesius, and Malalas. Others were published separately afterward as a supplement to the Venice edition : u Opera Georgii Pisidae, Theodosii Diaconi et Corippi Africani," Rome, 1777, fol. ; " Julii Pollucis Historia Sacra," Bologna, 1779, fol. ; " Con-stantini Porphyrogeniti libri ii. De Caeremoniis Aulse Byzantinse," 2 vols. fol., Leipzig, 1751 ; " Leonis Diaconi Caloensis Historia," ed. Hase, Paris, 1819, fol. A new edition of the Byzantine historians was projected by the late B. G. Niebuhr, the first volume of which appeared at Bonn, 1828, 8vo. Since Niebuhr' s death it has been carried on by Bekker, Dindorf, and other philologists, some of whom were associated with Niebuhr in the outset. It has already reached nearly fifty volumes, and will be, when completed,

1 Penny Cyctop&dict) L c>

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