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BYZANTINE PERIOD. 563

family of that name, fled from Constantinople at the time of the Turkish invasion, and took refuge at Lesbos under the Genoese adventurer, Prince Castelluzzi. He wrote a Byzantine history, which begins from Adam, after the fashion of the Chroniclers, and is but a brief general chronicle as far as the year 1341, after which his account becomes more circum­stantial, being more especially occupied with the history of the latter pe­riod of the eastern empire. It ends with the taking of Lesbos by the Turks in 1462. This latter part, therefore, forms a continuation to Can-tacuzenus. 26. joannes anagnostes, of Thessalonica, has left an ac­count of the taking of that city by the Turks in 1430. 27. joannes cananus has written a history of the war against Sultan Murad II. in 1420. 28. georgius phranza, born in 1401, of a family related to the Palseologi, filled some of the highest offices in the state under the last emperors. He was made prisoner by the Turks at the taking of Con­stantinople, was sold as a slave, recovered his freedom, and took refuge with Thomas Palaeologus, prince of Peloponnesus. When the Turks in­vaded that part of Greece, Phranza escaped to Italy, and at last became a monk, at Corfu, in 1468. There he wrote his " Chronicle," in four books, which begins with 1260 and ends with 1477, embracing the whole history of the Palaeologi. The work of Phranza is most valuable, though it is full of digressions upon religious controversies, the origin of com­ets, &C.1

X. The following are the general chroniclers, properly so called, who are also included under the general appellation of Byzantine historians: 1. georgius syncellus, who lived in the eighth century, wrote a " Chro-nography," from the beginning of the world to the time of Dioclesian, in which he has availed himself of Eusebius and Africanus. 2. theophanes isaacius, of Constantinople, who died about 817, continued the Chronicle of Syncellus from 280 till 813. 3. joannes of Antioch, called malalas, a Syrian word, meaning a rhetor or sophist, lived in the ninth century, and wrote a Chronicle from Adam till 566. 4. joannes scylitzes, who lived in the eleventh century, wrote a " Short History," or Chronicle, from 811 until 1057, which he afterward recast and continued until" 1081. 5. leo grammaticus wrote a " Chronography," which is a continuation of Theophanes from 813 to 949. 6. georgius monachus also left a Chroni­cle, embracing the same period as Leo's. 7. The chronicon paschale, called also Alexandrean Chronicle, is attributed by some to Georgius, the bishop of Alexandrea, who lived in the seventh century. It is also called Fasti Siculi, because the MS. was discovered in Sicily. It extends from the beginning of the world to 1042. 8. georgius hamartolus, an Archi­mandrite, wrote a Chronicle to the year 842, which is yet unedited. 9. joannes of Sicily wrote, in the ninth century, a Chronicle from the crea­tion of the world till 866, which is not yet printed. An anonymous con­tinuation of it till 1222 exists in the imperial library at Vienna. 10. Ni-cephorus, patriarch of Constantinople in the first part of the ninth cen­tury, has left a Breviarium Chronographicum, or short Chronicle, from the creation to the author's death in 828, giving series of the kings, emper-

1 Penny Cyclopaedia, I. c.

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