The Ancient Library

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then the Greater Asia, in book sixth; then India, the Ghersonesus Aurea, Seriea, the Sinse, and Taprobane, in book seventh, chapters one to four inclusive. The form in which the description is given is that of lists of places, with their longitudes and latitudes, arranged under the heads, first, of the three continents, and then of the several countries and tribes. Prefixed to each section is a brief general description of the boundaries and divisions of the part about to be described ; and remarks of a miscel­laneous character are interspersed among the lists, to which, however, they bear but a small proportion. The remaining part of the seventh and the whole of the eighth book are occupied with a description of a set of maps of the known world. These maps are still extant.1

The editio princeps of the Greek text is that by Erasmus. Basle, 1533, 4to; reprinted at Paris, 1546, 4to. The text of Erasmus was reprinted, but with a new Latin version, notes, and indices, edited by Montanus, and with the maps restored by Mercator, Am­sterdam, 1605, fol ; and a still more valuable edition was brought out by Bertius, print­ed by Elzevir, with the maps colored, and with the addition of the Peutingerian Tables, and other important illustrative matter, Leyden, 1619, fol., reprinted Antwerp, 1624, fol. The work also forms a part of the edition of Ptolemy's works, by the Abbe Halma, but left unfinished at his death, Paris, 1813-28, 4to: this edition contains a French transla­tion of the work. A valuable critical edition, by Wilberg and Grashof, Essen, 1838, seqq., is now in course of publication, to be completed in eight parts, of which six have appear­ed. A useful little edition of the Greek text is contained in three volumes of the Tauch-nitz Classics, Leipzig, 1843, 32mo.



•I. toward the close of the preceding period, the Empiric school had attained its highest celebrity by the labors of Serapion of Alexandrea. It had also been carried to Rome in the person of Archagathus, who was the first person that made medicine a distinct profession in that city. The individual, however, who practiced in this capital with the most brilliant success, was asclepiades, of Bithynia,2 who came to Rome at the beginning of the first century B.C., and lived there to a very great age. It is said that when he first came to Rome he was a teacher of rhetoric, and that it was in consequence of his not being successful in this profession that he turned his attention to the study of medicine. From what we learn of his history and of his practice, it would appear that he may be fairly characterized as a man of natural talents, acquaint­ed with human nature (or, rather, human weakness), possessed of con­siderable shrewdness and address, but with little science or professional skill. He had the discretion to refrain from the use of very active and powerful remedies, and to trust principally to the efficacy of diet, exer­cise, bathing, and other circumstances of this nature. A part of the great popularity he enjoyed depended upon his prescribing the liberal use of wine to his patients, and upon his not only attending, in all cases, with

* Smith, I. c. •* Smith, Diet. Biogr., a. v,


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