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486 GREEK LITERATURE.
through his influence that she threw off her allegiance to the Roman empire. On her capture by Aurelian in A.D. 273, Zenobia threw all the blame upon her advisers, and Longinus was in consequence put to death by that emperor.1
Longinus was unquestionably by far the greatest philosopher of the time, and stands forth so distinct and solitary in that age of mystic and fanciful quibblers, that it is impossible not to recognize in him a man of excellent sense, sound and independent judgment, and extensive knowledge. He had thoroughly imbibed the spirit of Plato and Demosthenes, from whom he derived not only that intellectual culture which distinguished him above all others, but also an ardent love of liberty, and a great frankness both in expressing his own opinions and exposing the faults and errors of others. His work On the Sublime (Tltpl "T\J/ous), a great part of which is still extant, surpasses in oratorical power every thing written after the time of the Greek orators. There is scarcely any work in the range of ancient literature which, independent of its excellence of style, contains so many exquisite remarks upon oratory, poetry, and good taste in general. It unfortunately contains many lacunae, which can not be filled up, since all the MSS. extant are only copies of the one which is preserved at Paris. Notwithstanding his manifold avocations, Longinus composed a great number of works, which appear to have been held in the highest estimation. They have all perished, however, and all that has come down to us consists of the treatise Uepl "YtJ/ovs, and a number of fragments, which have been preserved as quotations in the works of contemporary and later writers.
The first edition of the treatise irepl ityovs is that of Robortello, Basle, 1554, 4to. The next important edition is that of Portus, Geneva, 1569, 8vo, which forms the basis of all subsequent ones until the time of Tollius. We may, however, mention those of Lang-baene, Oxford, 1636, 1638, and 1650, 8vo, and of Faber, Saumur, 1663, 8vo. In 1694, there appeared the edition of Tollius, with notes and Latin translation, Utrecht, 4to. It was followed in the editions of Hudson, Oxford, 1710, 1718, 1730, 8vo ; Pearce, London, 1724, 4to, often reprinted in 8vo ; and Morus, Leipzig, 1769-73, 8vo. A collection of all that is extant of Longinus was published by Toup, with notes and emendations by Ruhnken, of which three editions were published at Oxford, 1778, 1789, and 1806, 8vo. The most recent editions are those of Weiske, Leipzig, 1809, 8vo, and of Egger, forming vol. i. of the Scriptorum Grcec. nova Collectio, Paris, 1837, 16mo.
V. apsines ('A^tVijs)2 of Gadara, in Phoenicia, a rhetorician and sophist, who nourished in the reign of Maximinus, about A.D. 235. He studied at Smyrna, under Heraclides the Lycian, and afterward at Nicomedia, under Basilicus. He subsequently taught rhetoric at Athens, and distinguished himself so much that he was honored with the consular dignity. He was a friend of Philostratus,3 who praises the strength and fidelity of his memory, but is afraid to say more for fear of being suspected of flattery or partiality. We still possess two rhetorical works of Apsines : 1. ITepl rwv (JLtpwv rov tto\itikov \6yov Tsyyi], which was first printed by Aldus in his Rhetores Grceci, under the incorrect title rex^n faropiK)) trepl irpooifjiiow, as it is called by the scholiast on Hermogenes. This work, however, is only a part of a greater work, and is so much inter-polated that it is scarcely possible to form a correct notion of it. A con-
1 Zosimus, i, 56. 2 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 3 Vit. Soph., ii., 33.