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ROMAN PERIOD. 483

rov ©ovKvfilSov xa/)a/cT?)pos, &c., written by Dionysius, at the request of his friend Julius Tubero, for the purpose of explaining more minutely what he had written on Thucydides. 8. n*pi t«j/ tqv ®ovKv5i$ov tSiw/^rw*/, 9. A<-iVo/3x°*> a very valuable treatise on the life and orations of Dinarchus.1

The Te'xn7 prjropiK^ was edited, with very valuable prolegomena and notes, by Schott, Leipzig, 1804, 8vo. Of the treatise irepl <rw0eVeu>s oj/o/adrwr, there are two very good editions, one by Schaefer, Leipzig, 1809, 8vo, and the other by Goller, Jena, 1815, 8vo, in which the text is considerably improved from MSS. The epitome, Trepl jat/x^o-ew?, is printed separately in Frotscher's edition of the tenth book of Quintilian, Leipzig, 1826, p. 271, seqq. The three treatises mentioned under Nos. 6, 7, and 8, are given in a very good edition by Kriiger, Halle, 1823, 8vo. The editions of the entire works have al­ready been given on page 455.

II. hermogenes ('Ep/^eVrjs)2 of Tarsus, one of the most celebrated of the Greek rhetoricians, lived in the reign of the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus, A.D. 161-180. He bore the surname of IwHjp, that is, the scratcher or polisher, either with reference to his vehement tempera* ment, or to the great polish which he strongly recommended as one of the principal requisites in a written composition. He was, according to all accounts, a man endowed with extraordinary talents, for at the age of fifteen he had already acquired so great a reputation as an orator, that the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus desired to hear him, and admired and richly rewarded him for his wonderful ability. Shortly after this, he was appointed public teacher of rhetoric; and, at the age of seventeen, he began his career as a writer, which unfortunately did not last long, for at the age of twenty-five he fell into a mental debility, which rendered him entirely unfit for farther literary and intellectual occupation, and of which he never got rid, although he lived to an advanced age; so that he was a man in the time of his youth, and a child during his maturer years. After his death, his heart is said to have been found covered with hair.3 If we may judge from what Hermogenes did at so early an age, there can be little doubt that he would have far excelled all other Greek rhetoricians, if he had remained in the full possession of his mental powers. His works, five in number, which are still extant, form together a complete system of rhetoric, and were for a long time used in all the rhetorical schools as manuals. Many distinguished rhetoricians and grammarians wrote commentaries upon them, some of which are still extant; many, also, made abridgments of the works of Hermogenes for the use of schools, and the abridgment of Aphthonius at length supplanted the original in most schools.

The works of Hermogenes are as follows: 1. Tex^r? fiyropiK)) irepl r&v crrdffetw, composed by the author at the age of eighteen. The work treats of the points and questions which an orator, in civil cases, has to take into his consideration. It examines every one separately, and thence de­duces the rules which a speaker has to observe. The work is a very useful guide for those who prepare themselves for speaking in courts of justice. 2. n*pl €vp€ffe<*>s (De Inventione), in four books, containing in­structions about the proper composition of an oration. Every point which Hermogenes here discusses is illustrated, as in the preceding work, by 1 Smith, 1. c. 2 Smith, Diet. Biogr., a. fc. 3 PMito&r., Vit. Soph., ii., 7 , Ewtoc., p. 165.

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