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ROMAN PERIOD. 481

carefully revised, and a new arrangement of the Dissertations was adopted, was publish-ed after the editor's death by Dr. John Ward, the Gresham professor, with valuable notes by Jeremiah Markland, London, 1740, 4to. This second edition of Davies was reprinted' with some corrections and additional notes, by Reiske, 2 vols. 8vo, Leipzig, 1774-5. '

IX. philostratus (SiAoVrparos) FLAvius,1 a celebrated sophist and rhetorician, bora probably in Lemnos, about A.D. 182. He studied and taught at Athens, whence he is usually called the Athenian, to distinguish him from a younger namesake. He afterward removed to Rome, where we find him a member of the circle of literary men whom the philosophic Julia Domna, the wife of Severus, had drawn around her. It was at her desire that he wrote the life of Apollonius of Tyana. He was still alive in the reign of the Emperor Philippus (244-249). The following works of Philostratus have come down to us : 1. The Life of Apollonius of Ty­ana, the famous impostor. Many of the wonders which Philostratus re­lates in connection with Apollonius are merely clumsy imitations of the Christian miracles. The work is divided into eight books. 2. The Lives of the Sophists (Bioi 2o0f<rr&)j/), in two books, containing the history of philosophers who had the character of being sophists, and of those who were really sophists. It begins with the life of Gorgias, and comes down to the contemporaries of Philostratus, in the reign of Philippus. 3. He-ro'ica, or Hero'icus ('Hpou/ca, 'Kpui^s), in the form of a dialogue, and giving an account of the heroes engaged in the Trojan war. 4. Imagines (El^-es), in two books, containing an account of various paintings. This is the author's most pleasing work, exhibiting great richness of fancy, power and variety of delineation, and a rich exuberance of style. 5. Ejristola , seventy-three in number, chiefly specimens of amatory letters.

Of the collected works of Philostratus there is, 1. The edition of Morellius, Paris, 1608, containing all the works above mentioned, along with some of those of other writers. This edition is of no value. 2. That of Olearius, Leipzig, 1709, 2 vols. fol. Previous to this edition, Bentley and others had contemplated one. Indeed, Bentley had gone so far as to publish a specimen sheet. Unhappily, the design was not executed ; but he freely communicated to Olearius both his conjectural criticisms and his notes of various read­ings. The edition is a very beautiful specimen of typography, and, in spite of many faults, and the accusation that the editor has been guilty of gross plagiarism, which has been repeatedly brought against him, is very valuable, especially for its exegetical notes. 3. The last edition, and, critically, by far the best, is that of C. L. Kayser, Zurich, 1844, 4to. It contains introductory remarks on each book, the Greek text, and notes, which are principally critical. As he had already published several of the treatises of Philos­tratus separately, the notices and notes are, in some cases, briefer than might have been desired. Philostratus seems to have occupied his attention for years, and scholars in various parts of Europe have aided him, in collecting MSS. Of separate editions, we may mention Kayser's elaborate edition of the Lives of the Sophists, Heidelberg, 1838 ; Boissonade's edition of the Heroica, Paris, 1806 ; and Jacobs' and Welcker's edition of the Imagines, Leipzig, 1825.

II. RHETORICIANS.

I. dionysius of HALicARNAssys.2 We have already made mention of this writer when treating of the historical productions of this age. It now remains to notice briefly his rhetorical and critical works. All the writings of this class show that Dionysius was not only a rhetorician of the first

1 Smith t Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Id. ib.

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