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474 GREEK LITERATURE.
His Adyot €7n,Ta<£iot were first printed by H. Stephens, in his collection of the Declamations of Polemon, Himerius, and other rhetoricians, Paris, 1547, 4to; and were afterward published by themselves in Greek, from the same press, Paris, 1586, 4to; and in Greek and Latin, Toulouse, 1637, 8vo. The latest and best edition is that of Caspar and Conrad Orelli, Leipzig, 1819, 8vo.
IV. herodes atticus, tiberius claudius,* a celebrated Greek sophist and rhetorician, bom about A.D. 104, at Marathon, in Attica. His father, whose name was likewise Atticus, discovered on his estate a hidden treasure, which at once made him one of the wealthiest men of his age. His son afterward increased this wealth by marrying the rich Annia Re-gilla. Old Atticus left in his will a clause, according to which every Athenian citizen was to receive yearly one mina (about $ 17 60) out of his property; bu^his son entered into a composition with the Athenians to pay them, once for all, five minas each. As Herodes, however, in paying the Athenians, deducted the debts which some citizens owed to his father, they were exasperated against him, and, notwithstanding the great benefits he conferred upon Athens, bore him a grudge as long as he lived. Herodes received a very careful education from some of the best instructors of the day ; and, after completing his studies, opened a school of rhetoric at Athens, and subsequently at Rome also, where Marcus Au-relius Antoninus, who ever afterward entertained a high esteem for him, was among his pupils. In A.D. 143, the Emperor Antoninus Pius raised him to the consulship ; but as Herodes cared more for his fame as a rhetorician than for high offices, he afterward returned to Athens, whither he was followed by a great number of young men, and whither L. Verus also was sent as a pupil by the Emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus.
The wealth and influence of Herodes Atticus did not fail to raise up enemies. His public and private life were attacked in various ways, and these annoyances at last appear to have induced him to retire from public life, and to spend his remaining years in his villa near Marathon, surrounded by his pupils. The Emperor M. Aurelius sent him a letter, in which he assured him of his unaltered esteem. In the case of Herodes the Athenians drew upon themselves the just charge of ingratitude, for no man had ever done so much to assist his fellow-citizens, and to embellish Athens at his own expense. Among the great architectural works with which he adorned the city, we may mention a race-course (stadium) of white Pentelic marble, of which ruins are still extant, and the magnificent theatre of Regilla, with a roof made of cedar-wood. His liberality, however, was not confined ixd Attica. At Corinth he built a theatre, at Olympia an aqueduct, at Delphi a race-course, and at Thermopylae a hospital ; and he also restored, with his ample means, several decayed towns in various parts of Greece. His wealth, generosity, and, still more, his skill as a rhetorician, spread his fame over the whole Roman world. He is believed to have died at the age of 76, in A.D. 180.s
If we look upon Herodes Atticus as a man, it must be owned that there scarcely ever was a wealthy person who spent his property in a more generous, noble, and disinterested manner. His greatest ambition, however, was to shine as a rhetorician; and this ambition, indeed, was so
1 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Smith, L c.