The Ancient Library

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not Plutarch's province. His best writings are practical, and their mer­its consist in the soundness of his views on the ordinary events of human life, and in the benevolence of his temper. His " Marriage Precepts" are a sample of his good sense and of his happiest expression. He right­ly appreciated, also, the importance of a good education, and he gives much sound advice on the bringing up of children.

The first edition of all the works of Plutarch is that of H. Stephens, Geneva, 1572, 13 vols. 8vo. An edition of the Greek text, with a Latin version, appeared at Leipzig, 1774-1782, 12 vols. 8vo, and it is generally called Reiske's edition, but Reiske died in 1774. Hutten's edition appeared at Tubingen, 1791-1805, 14 vols. 8vo. A separate edition of the Lives first appeared in Latin, at Rome, about 1470, 2 vols. fol. The version was made by several hands, and was the foundation of the Spanish and Italian versions. The first edition of the Greek text of the Lives was that printed by Giunta, Florence, 1517, fol. The edition of Bryan, London, 1729, 5 vols. 4to, with a Latin version, was completed by Moses du. Soul, after Bryan's death. There is an edition by Coraes, Paris, 1809-1815, with notes, in 6 vols. 8vo ; one by Schaefer, Leipzig, 1825-30, 6 vols. 8vo, with notes original and selected; one by Sintenis, Leipzig, 1839-1846,4 vols. 8vo ; and one by Doehner, 2 vols. large 8vo, in Didot's Bibliotheca Grceca, Paris, 1846. The best of these editions is that of Sintenis. The first edition of the Moralia, which is said to be very in­correct, was printed by the elder Aldus, Venice, 1509, fol.; and afterward at Basle, by Froben, 1542, fol., 1574, fol. The best edition, however, is that of Wyttenbach, the labor of four-and-twenty years. It was printed at Oxford in 4to. It consists of four parts, or six volumes of text (1795-1800) and two volumes of notes (1810-1821). It was also printed at the same time in 8vo, 14 vols. There is also a Leipzig edition of the notes of Wyttenbach, 1820-34, 3 vols. 8vo. An edition of the Moralia, by Diibner, 2 vols. large 8vo, forms part of Didot's Bibliotheca Grosca, Paris, 1841, and claims to have a text su­perior to that of Wyttenbach. A useful Index Groscitatis, from the papers of Wyttenbach, was published at Oxford, 2 vols. 8vo, 1830, reprinted at Leipzig, 1843.

XII. arrianus ('A/Spiavos),1 a native of Nicomedia, in Bithynia, born about A.D. 90, was a pupil and friend of Epictetus, and first attracted at­ tention as a philosopher by publishing at Athens the lectures of his mas­ ter. In A.D. 124, he gained the friendship of Hadrian during his stay in Greece, and received from the emperor the Roman citizenship. From this time he assumed the name Flavius Arrianus. In A.D. 136, he was appointed prefect of Cappadocia, which was invaded the year after by the Alani or Massagetae, whom he defeated. Under Antoninus Pius, in A.D. 146, Arrian was consul; and about A.D. 150, he withdrew from public life, and from this time lived in his native town of Nicomedia, as priest of Ceres and Proserpina. He died at an advanced age, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Arrian was one of the best and most active writers of his time. He was a close imitator of Xenophon, both in the subjects of his works and in the style in which they were written. He regarded his relation to Epictetus as similar to that of Xenophon to Socrates,2 and it was his endeavor to carry out that resemblance. With this view he pub­ lished, 1. The Philosophical Lectures of his master (AiaTpifial 'ettikttitov), in eight books, the first half of which is still extant. 2. An Abstract of the practical philosophy of Epictetus (JE7xetpi§joz/ 'etti/cttjtov), which is still extant. This celebrated work maintained its authority for many centuries with both Christians and pagans. He also published other works relating to Epictetus, which are noW lost. His original works are, 3. A Treatise on the Chase (Kvvr)y€riK6s}, which forms a kind of supple- 1 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Photius, p. 17, B, ed. Bekker; Suid., s. v.

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