The Ancient Library

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that he attempted to give the myths in their simplest and most genuine form, as related by the most ancient writers. Timaeus, also, collected the materials of his history with the greatest diligence and care, a fact which even Polybius is compelled to admit. He likewise paid very great attention to chronology, and was the first writer who introduced the practice of recording events by Olympiads, which was adopted by almost all subsequent writers of Greek history. For this purpose he drew up a list of the Olympic conquerors, which is called by Suidas 'OAi^Trtoi/i/ccu % XpovtKo. Trpa£i8ia. Cicero formed a very different opinion of the merits of Timaeus from that of Polybius. He says, " Timaus, quantum judicare possim, longe eruditissimus, et rerum copia et sententiarum varietate abundant-issimus, et ipsa compositione^verborum non impolitus, magnam eloquentiam ad scribendum attulit, sed nullum usum forensem."1

The fragments of Timseus have been collected by Goller, in his treatise De situ et orig-ine Syracusarum, Leipzig, 1818, p. 209, se##.; and by C. and Th. Miiller, in the Fragm. Histor. GrcBC., vol. i., p. 193, seqq., in Didot's Bibliotheca Grcsca, Paris, 1841, 8vo.

VII. aratus ("A^aro*)2 of Sicyon, the celebrated general of the Achseans, born at Sicyon B.C. 271, wrote Commentaries, being a history of his own times down to B.C. 220, which Polybius characterizes as clearly written and faithful records. But to this latter praise they were not entitled, fhey formed Plutarch's principal authority for the Life of Aratus. The fragments are given by C. Miiller, in the Fragm. Histor. Gr&c., vol. iii., p. 21, seqq., in Didot's Bibliotheca Grceca, Paris, 1849, 8vo.

VIII. phylarchus ($6\apxos),3 a contemporary of Aratus, probably a native of Naucratis, in Egypt, but who spent the greater part of his life at Athens. We may place him at about B.C. 215. His great work was a history in twenty-eight books, embracing a period of fifty-two years, from the expedition of Pyrrhus into the Peloponnesus, B.C. 272, to the death of Cleomenes, B.C. 220. Phylarchus is vehemently attacked by Polybius,* who charges him with falsifying history through his partiality to Cleomenes, and his hatred against Aratus and the Achseans. The accusation is probably not unfounded, but it might be retorted with equal justice upon Polybius, who has fallen into the opposite error of exagger­ating the merits of Aratus and his party, and depreciating Cleomenes, whom he certainly has both misrepresented and misunderstood.5 The accusation of Polybius is repeated by Plutarch,6 but it comes with rather a bad grace from the latter writer, since there can be little doubt, as Lucht has shown, that his lives of Agis and Cleomenes are taken almost entirely from Phylarchus, to whom he is likewise indebted for the latter part of his life of Pyrrhus. The vivid and graphic style of Phylarchus was well suited to Plutarch's purpose. It appears, it is true, to have been too oratorical and declamatory, but at the same time to have been lively and attractive, and to have brought the events of the history vividly be­fore the reader's mind. He was, however, very negligent in the arrange-' ment of his words, as Dionysius has remarked. Suidas mentions other

1 Cic., De Orat., ii., 14 ; compare Brut., 95. 2 Smith, Diet., s. v.

3 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. * Polyb., ii., 56, seqq.

5 Niebuhr, Kkine Schriften,\ol. i., p. 270, note. 6 Vit. Arat., 38.

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