The Ancient Library

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Two years after his flight from Atarneus (B.C. 342), he accepted an in­vitation from Philip of Macedonia to undertake the instruction of his son Alexander, then thirteen years of age.1 At the court of this monarch he was treated with the most marked respect; his native city, Stagira, which had been destroyed by Philip, with many other Grecian cities in the same quarter, was rebuilt at his request, and the monarch caused a gymnasium to be erected there, in a pleasant grove, expressly for Aris­totle and his pupils. Plutarch informs us that several other noble youths-enjoyed the instruction of Aristotle along with Alexander,2 among whom we may mention Cassander, the son of Antipater,3 Marsyas of Pella (brother of Antigonus, afterward king), and Ptolemy, the future monarch of Egypt. Alexander attached himself with such ardent affection to the philosopher, that the youth, whom no one yet had been able to managey soon valued his instructor above his own father. Aristotle spent seven years in Macedonia, but Alexander enjoyed his instruction without inter­ruption for only four. But with such a pupil even this short period was sufficient for a teacher like Aristotle to fulfill the highest purposes of edu­cation, to aid the development of his pupil's faculties in every direction^ to awaken susceptibility and lively inclination for every art and science, and to create in him that sense of the noble and great which distinguishes Alexander from all the conquerors who have only swept like a hurricane through the world. According to the usual mode of Grecian education? a knowledge of the poets, eloquence, and philosophy were the principal subjects into which Aristotle initiated his royal pupil. Thus we are even informed that he prepared a new recension of the Iliad for him,4 that he instructed him in ethics and politics,5 and disclosed to him the abstrusi­ties of his own speculations, of the publication of which by his writings Alexander afterward complained.6

On Alexander's accession to the throne, in B.C. 335, Aristotle returned to Athens. Here he found his friend Xenocrates president of the Acad­emy. He himself had the Lyceum, a gymnasium sacred to Apollo Lyce-us, assigned him by the state. He soon assembled around him a large number of distinguished scholars, to whom he delivered lectures in phi­losophy, in the shady walks (irep'nraroi} which surrounded the Lyceum, while walking up and down (irepnrar&v}, and not sitting, which last was the general practice of the philosophers. From one or other of these circumstances the name Peripatetic is derived, which was afterward giv­en to his school. He gave two different courses of lectures every day.7 Those which he delivered in the morning (kwQw'bs Trepnraros), to a narrower circle of chosen and confidential (esoteric} hearers, and which were called acroamatic or acroatic, embraced subjects connected with the more abstruse philosophy (theology), physics, and dialectics. Those which he delivered in the afternoon (SeiAu/bs Trepi-rraros), and intended for a more promiscuous circle (which, accordingly, he called exoteric}, extended to rhetoric, so­phistics, and politics. He appears to have taught not so much in the

1 Plut., Alex., 5; Quintil., L, 1 3 Plut., Alex., 74. 5 PZw£., J.Ze,r,, 7.

2 Apophth. Reg., vol. v., p. 683, ecL Rtiske*

4 Wolf, Prolegom*, p, clxxxL

6 GelL, xx., 5. 7 Id. ib«

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