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ATTIC PERIOD. 279

chines himself, on the other hand, says that his .father was descended from an honorable family, and lost his property during the Peloponnesian war. ^Eschines had two brothers, one of whom, Philochares, was older than himself, and the other, Aphobetus, was the youngest of the three. Philochares was at one time one of the ten Athenian generals, an office which was conferred upon him for three successive years ; Aphobetus followed the calling of a scribe, but had once been sent on an embassy to the King of Persia, and was afterward connected with the administration of the public revenue of Athens.1 All these things seem to contain strong evidence that the family of JEschines, though poor, must have been of some respectability.

In his youth ^schines appears to have assisted his father, who kept a small school; he next acted as secretary to Antiphon, and afterward to Eubulus, a man of great influence with the democratical party, with whom he formed an intimate friendship, and to whose political principles he re­mained faithful to the end of his life. After leaving the service of Eubu­lus, he tried his fortune as an actor, for which he was provided by nature with a strong and sonorous voice. He acted the parts of a rpiraywvKTr^s^ but was unsuccessful, and, on one occasion, when he was performing in the character of CEnomaus, he was hissed off the stage.2 After this he left the stage and engaged in military services, in which, according to-his own account,3 he gained great distinction.4 After sharing in several less important engagements in other parts of Greece, he distinguished himself, in B.C. 362, in the battle of Mantinea. Subsequently, in B.C. 358, he also took part in the expedition of the Athenians against Eubcea, and fought in the battle of Tamynae, and on this occasion he gained such laurels that he was praised by the generals on the spot, and, after the victory was gained, was sent to carry the news of it to Athens. The Athenians honored him with a crown. Two years before this campaign, the last in which he took part, ^Eschines had come forward at Athens as a public speaker,5 and the military fame which he had now acquired established his reputation. His former occupation as a scribe to Antiphon and Eubulus had made him acquainted with the laws and constitution of Athens, while his acting on the stage had been a useful preparation for public speaking.

During the first period of his public career, ^Eschiries^ wras, like all other Athenians, zealously engaged in directing the attention of his fellow-cit­izens to the growing power of Philip, and exhorted them to check it in its growth. In B.C. 347, he was sent, along with Demosthenes, as one of the ten ambassadors to negotiate a peace with Philip. From this time he appears as the friend of the Macedonian party, and as the opponent of Demosthenes. Shortly afterward, he formed one of the second embassy sent to Philip to receive that monarch's oath to the treaty which had been concluded with the Athenians; but, as the delay of the ambassadors in obtaining the ratification had been favorable to the interests of Philip, ^Eschines, on his return to Athens, was accused by Timarchus. He evaded the danger, however, by bringing forward a counter-accusation

1 jEsch., Defals. Leg.,y. 48. 2 J)em., De Coron., p. 288. 3 Defals. Leg.,?. 50. 4 Compare Demosth., Defals. Leg., p. 375. 5 JEsch., Epist., 12,

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