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ATTIC PERIOD. 277

of his discourses, he declares that he sees no safety for Athens save in the restoration of that democracy which Solon had founded, and Clisthe-nes had revived.

Besides these entire orations, we have the titles and fragments of twenty-seven other orations, which are referred to under the name of Isocrates. There also exist under his name ten letters, which were written to friends on political questions of the time; one of them, how­ever (the tenth), is in all probability spurious, A scientific manual of rhetoric (rexvrj faTopiirf)), which Isocrates wrote, is lost, with the excep­tion of a few fragments, so that we are unable to form any definite idea of his merits in this respect.

The orations of Isocrates are printed in the various collections of the Greek orators already mentioned at the close of the article on Antiphon. Of the separate editions we may mention those of H, Wolf, Basle, 1553, 8vo, and with Wolf's notes and emenda­tions, Basle, 1570, fol.; of Auger, Paris, 1782, 3 vols. 8vo, which is not what it might have been, considering the MSS. he had at his disposal; of Lange, Halle, 1803, 8vo ; of Coraes, Paris, 1807, 2 vols. 8vo ; of Baiter and Sauppe, Zurich, 1839, 8vo; and of Baiter, in Didot's Bibliotheca Grceca, Paris, 1846, 8vo. There are also many good editions either of the orations separately, or else of particular orations, among which we may name the Select Orations, by Bremi, Gotha, 1831, part i.; the Panegyricus, with the notes of Morus, by Spohn, Leipzig, 1817, 2d edition by Baiter, Lips., 1831; by Pinzger, Leipzig, 1825, and by Dindorf, 1826; the Areopagiticus, by Benseler, Leipzig, 1832 ; the Panegyr-icus and Areopagiticus, by Rauchenstein, Leipzig, 1849, 8vo, forming part of Haupt and Sauppe's collection; the Euagorcs Encomium, by Leloup, Mayence, 1828; and the oration irepl cU"riS6<rews, by Orelli, Zurich, 1814.

A useful Index Grascitatis was published by Mitchell, Oxford, 1827, 8vo. The follow­ing works will also be found worthy of attention: Westermann, Gesch. der GriecJi. Be-redtsamkeit, § 48, seq.; Beilage, iv., p. 288, seqq.; Leloup, Commentatio de Isocrate, Bonn, 1823, 8vo; and Pfund, De Isocratis Vita et Scriptis, Berlin, 1833.

5. Is^us (5I<ra?os) was a native of Chalcis, or, as some say, of Athens, probably only because he came to the latter city at an early age, and spent the greater part of his life there. The time of his birth and death is unknown, but all accounts agree in the statement that he flourished (f/K^cwre) during the period between the Peloponnesian war and the acces­sion of Philip of Macedonia, so that he lived between B.C. 420 and 348.1 He was instructed in oratory by Lysias and Isocrates.2 He was after­ward engaged in writing judicial orations for others, and established a rhetorical school at Athens, in which Demosthenes is said to have been one of his pupils. Suidas states that Isaeus instructed him gratis, whereas Plutarch relates that he received 10,000 drachmas ;3 and it is further said that Isseus wrote for Demosthenes the speeches against his guard­ians, or, at least, assisted him in the composition. All particulars about his life are unknown, and were so even in the time of Dionysius, since Hermippus, who had written an account of the disciples of Isocrates, did not mention Isaeus at all.

In antiquity there were sixty-four orations which bore the name of Isseus, but fifty only were recognized as genuine by the ancient critics.* Of these only eleven have come down to us; but \ve possess fragments and the titles of fifty-six speeches ascribed to him. The eleven extant are

~^Dionys., Isaus, 1; Plut., Vit. Dec. Orat., p. 839. ' 2 Phot., Cod., 263. a Pint., De Glor. Ath., p. 350, C. 4 Id., Vit. Dec. Orat., I. c.

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