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PROSAIC PERIOD. 149
result of most extensive travelling and research, and which bears in every part of it evident marks of the hand of a man of mature age. Some critics have recourse to the supposition that what he recited at Olympia was only a sketch or a portion of his work; but this is in direct contradiction to the statement of Lucian, wrho asserts that he read the whole of the nine books, which, on that occasion, received the names uf the Muses, If the story in question had been known at all in the time of Plutarch, this writer surely would not have passed it over in silence, when he tells of Herodotus having calumniated all the Greeks, except the Athenians, who had bribed him. There is one tradition, indeed, which mentions that Herodotus read his work at the Panathenaic festival at Athens, in B.C. 445 or 446, and that there existed at Athens a psephisma, granting to the historian a reward of ten talents from the public treasury.1 This tradition, however, is not only in contradiction with the time when he must have written his work, but is evidently nothing more than part and parcel of the charge, which the author of that contemptible treatise on the Malignity of Herodotus makes against the historian, namely, that he was bribed by the Athenians. The source of all this calumnious scandal is nothing but the petty vanity of the Thebans, which was hurt by the truthful description of their conduct during the war against Persia.2
With a simplicity which characterizes his whole work, Herodotus makes no display of the great extent of his travels ; and he is so free from the ordinary vanity of travellers, that, instead of acting a prominent part in his narrative, he very seldom appears at all in it. Hence it is impossible for us to give any thing like an accurate chronological succession of his travels. In Greece Proper, and on the coasts of Asia Minor, there is scarcely any place of importance with which he is not perfectly familiar from his own observation, and where he did not make inquiries respecting this or that particular point; we may mention more especially the oracular places, such as Dodona and Delphi. In many quarters of Greece, such as Samos, Athens, Thebes, and Corinth, he seems to have made a rather long stay. The spots where the great battles had been fought between the Greeks and barbarians, as Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, and Platsese, were well known to him, and on the whole route which Xerxes and his army took, on their march from the Hellespont to Athens, there was probably not a place which he had not seen with his own eyes, He also visited most of the Greek islands, not only in the ^Egean, but even those in the wrestern waters of Greece, such as Zacynthus. As for his travels in foreign countries, we know that he sailed through the Hellespont, the Propontis, and crossed the Euxine in both directions; with the Palus Mseotis he was but imperfectly acquainted. He further visited Thrace3 and Scythia.4 The interior of Asia Minor, especially Lydia, was well known to him, and so was also Phoenicia. He visited Tyre for the special purpose of obtaining information respecting the worship of Hercules. Previous to this he had been in Egypt, for it was in Egypt that. his curiosity respecting Hercules had been excited.5
i Pint., De Malign. Herod., 26, 2 Smith, I. c. 3 ii,, 108. 4 iv., 70, 81. $ Smith, I, c,