The Ancient Library

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us that among them were many to Diana and Venus, in which the vari­ous localities of their worship were mentioned. Suidas also ascribes to her epigrams, elegies, iambics, and monodies. The Greek anthology con­tains three epigrams under her name, but their genuineness is doubtful. Her poems wrere all written in her native ^Eolic dialect, and form with those of Alcasus the standard of the ^Eolic dialect of Lesbos. The rhyth­mical construction of her odes was essentially the same as that of Alcae-us, though with many variations, and in harmony with the softer charac­ter of her poetry.1

A few remarks may not here be amiss respecting the musical and rhythmical forms in which the poetry of Sappho was embodied. Hero­dotus calls her generically (j.ovffoiroi6s. Suidas uses the specific terms XvpiKj] and \l/6\Tpia. Her instrument was the harp, which she seems to have used both in the form of the ^Eolian barbiton and the Lydian pecMs. The invention of the latter was ascribed to her by some of the ancients. Her chief mode of music was the Mixolydian, the tender and plaintive character of which was admirably adapted to her erotic poems, and the invention of which was ascribed to her by Aristoxenus, although others assigned it to Pythoclides, and others to Terpander.2

Of the metres of Sappho, the most important is that which bears her name, and which only differs from the Alcaic by the position of a short syllable, which ends the Sapphic and begins the Alcaic verse; thus, for example,



Grandmis misit pater It ruben es ut dltd stet nlve cdndidum.

From the resemblance between the two forms, and from the frequent oc­currence of each of them in the fragments of Sappho and Alceeus, and in the odes of Catullus and Horace, we may fairly conclude that in these two verses we have the most characteristic rhythm of the ^Eolian lyric poetry. A new and manifestly more correct mode of reading the Sapphic verse is now beginning to prevail, the nature of which may be understood from the authorities mentioned in the notes.3

The fragments of Sappho have appeared in numerous collections, par­ticularly in Brunck's Analectd, vol. i., p. 54, seqq.; vol. iii., p. 8, seqq.; in the Museum Criticum, vol. i., by Blomfield; by Gaisford, in his Poetce Greed Minores; by Schneidewin, in his Delectus Poesis Grcecorum; in Ahren's treatise, " De Lingua Graca Dialectis;" and in Bergk's Poeta Lyrici Graci. The best separate edition is that of Neue, BeroL, 1827, 4to.

III. erinna (vH/>iwa), a contemporary and friend of Sappho (about B.C. 612), who died at the age of nineteen, but left behind her poems which were thought worthy to rank with those of Homer. Her poems were of the epic class ; the chief of them was entitled 'HAa/om?, " The Distaff;" it consisted of three hundred lines, of which only four are extant.4 It

1 Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Id. ib.

3 Journal of Education, vol. iv., p. 356; Penny Cyclopedia, s. v. Arsis. Compare Don-aldsori's Varronianus, p. 275. The prior claim to the discovery, or, rather, introduction of this new mode of reading Sapphics, gave rise to a pamphlet warfare between Dr. Don-aldson and Professor Key of the London University.

4 $tob.,Flor.,c\viii., 4; Athen,, vii., p. 283, D; Bergk, Poet. Lyr. Grac., p= 632.

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