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90 GREEK LITERATURE.

to the fundamental principle of the whole mode of versification. The metre thus maimed and stripped of its beauty and regularity, ajid tech­nically made frppvO/Aos, was a perfectly appropriate rhythmical form for the delineation of such pictures of intellectual deformity as Hipponax delighted in. As this new species of verse had hence a sort of halting movement, it obtained the name of Choliambus (xcyAra^^s), " lame iam­bic," or Iambus Scazon (ta^os <r/ca£<w), " limping iambic." Iambics of this kind are still more cumbrous and halting when the fifth foot is also a spon­dee ; which, indeed, according to the original structure, is not forbidden. These last were called Ischi-orrhogic, " broken-backed" (IffxiopptayiKoi), and were invented by another iambographer named Ananius. They are very rarely used by Hipponax. The choliambics of Hipponax were imitated by many later writers ; among others by Babrius, whose Fables are com­posed entirely in this metre.1

Hipponax wrote also a parody on the Iliad. He may be said to occupy a middle place between Archilochus and Aristophanes. He is as bitter, but not so earnest as the former, while, in lightness and jocoseness, he more resembles the latter. There are still extant about a hundred lines of his poems which are collected by Welcker (Hipponactis et Ananii lam-bographorum Fragmenta, Getting., 1817, 4to), Bergk (Poeta Lyrici Graci\ Schneidewin (Delectus Poesis Grcecorum), and by Meineke, in Lachmann's edition of Babrius, Berol., 1845.

5. ananius ('avwlos}, a Greek iambic poet, contemporary with Hippo­nax, flourished about 540 B.C. He is generally regarded as the inventor of ischiorrhogic iambics, of which we have just made mention. Ananius has hardly any individual character in literary history distinct from that of Hipponax. In Alexandrea their poems seem to have been regarded as forming one collection; and thus the criterion by which to determine whether a particular passage belonged to the one or the other was often lost, or never existed. Hence, in the uncertainty which is the true au­thor, the same verse is occasionally ascribed to both.2 The few fragments which are attributed with certainty to Ananius are so completely in the tone of Hipponax, that it would be a vain labor to attempt to point out any characteristic difference. These fragments appear with those of Hipponax in the edition of Welcker, and in the collections mentioned in the previous article.3

FABLE AND PARODY.4

V. Akin to the Iambic are two kinds of poetry, which, though differing widely from each other, have both their source in the turn for the delin­eation of the ludicrous, and both stand in a close historical relation to the iambic: 1. fable, originally called alvos, and afterward, less precisely, (jLvQos and \6yos; and, 2. parody.

VI. With regard to Fable, it is not improbable that in other countries, particularly in the north of Europe, it may have arisen from a child-like, playful view of the character and habits of animals, which frequently sug-

1 Muller, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 142 ; Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. 2 Athen., xiv., p. 625, c. 3 Mutter', p. 143 ; Smith, Diet. Biogr., s. v. * Mutter, I. c.

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