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GREEK LITERATURE.

Horace, as we learn from that poet himself. Some manifest translations of Archilochus may be seen in the Epodes.

The fragments of Archilochus are collected in Jacobs' Anthologia Gr&-ca, Gaisford's Poeta Greed Minores, Bergk's Poetce Lyrici Grceci, and by Liebel, in his Archilochi Reliquice, Lips., 1812, 8vo (2d edit., Vienna, 1819).

2. simonides (^/jcwi'st/s) of Samos, or, as he is more usually designa­ted, of Amorgos, has already, like Archilochus, been briefly alluded to under the head of the elegiac poets. He was the second, both in time and reputation, of the three principal iambic poets of the early period of Greek literature, namely, Archilochus, Simonides, and Hipponax.1 He was a native of Samos, whence he led a colony to the neighboring island of Amorgos, where he founded three cities, Minoa, .ZEgialus, and Arcesi-ne, in the first of which he fixed his own abode.2 He flourished about B.C. 664. The iambic poems of Simonides were of two species, gnomic and satirical; and he is remarkable for the peculiar application which he made of the iambi'c metre ; (that is to say, he took not individuals, but whole classes of persons as the object of his satire. The most important of his extant fragments is a satire upon women, in which he derives the various, though generally bad qualities of women from the variety of their origin; thus, the uncleanly woman is derived from the swine ; the cunning woman from the fox, the talkative woman from the dog, and so on. There is only one race created for the benefit of men, the woman sprung from the bee, who is fond of her work, and keeps faithful watch over her house.3

The fragments of Simonides of Amorgos have been edited, intermixed with those of Simonides of Ceos, and almost without an attempt to dis­tinguish them, in the chief collections of the Greek poets ; in Brunck's Analecta, and in Jacobs' Anthologia Graca. There is an edition of the fragment on women by Koeler, with a prefatory epistle by Heyne, Get­ting., 1781, 8vo. But the first complete edition was that of "Welcker, published in the Rheinisches Museum for 1835, 2d series, vol. iii., p. 353, seqq., and also separately, under the title of Simonidis Amorgini Iambi qui supersunt, Bonn., 1835, 8vo. The text of the fragments is also con­tained in Schneidewin's Delectus Poesis Gracorum, and in Bergk's Poet(E Lyrici Graci.

3. solon (2<$Aco;/) of Athens has been already mentioned, like the pre­ceding, under the head of elegiac poets. After Solon had introduced his new constitution, he soon found that, although he had attempted to sat­isfy the claims of all parties, or, rather, to give to each party and order its due share- of power, he had not succeeded in satisfying any. In order to shame his opponents, he wrote some iambics, in which he calls on his censors to consider of how many citizens the state would have been be­reaved, if he had listened to the demands of the contending factions. As a witness of the goodness of his plans, Solon calls the great goddess Earth, the mother of Saturn, whose surface had before this time been

1 Proclus, Cfofistom., 7 ; Lucian., PseudoL, 2.

2 Compare Strab., x., p. 487; Steph. Byz., s. v. '

3 Mutter, Hist. Gr. Lit., p. 140.

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