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82 GREEK LITERATURE.
among the materials of the later Anthologies than as an Anthology in itself.
IV. During the long period from the decline of original literature to the era when the imitative compositions of the Constantinopolitan grammarians had reached their height, we find no more Anthologies. The next was the Ktf/cXos ^L'ypa.^a.Twv of agathias scholasticus, who lived in the time of Justinian. It was divided into seven books, according to subjects, and was the earliest Anthology so arranged. The poems included in it were those of recent writers, and chiefly those of Agathias himself and of his contemporaries, such as Paulus Silentiarius and Macedonius.
V. Next in order is the Anthology of constantinus cephalas, called also the Palatine Anthology. Constantinus Cephalas appears to have lived about four centuries after Agathias, and to have flourished in the tenth century, under the Emperor Constantinus Porphyrogennetus.1 The labors of preceding compilers may be viewed as merely supplementary to the Garland of Meleager; but the Anthology of Cephalas was an entirely new collection from the preceding Anthologies and from original sources. Nothing is known of Cephalas himself. Modern scholars had never even heard his name till it was brought to light by the fortunate discovery of Salmasius. That great scholar, when a very young man, visited Heidelberg about the end of the year 1606, and there, in the library of the Electors Palatine, he found the MS. collection of Greek epigrams, which was afterward removed to the Vatican, with the rest of the Palatine library, in 1623, and has become celebrated under the names of the Palatine Anthology, and the Vatican Codex of the Greek Anthology. This MS. was transferred to Paris upon the peace of Tolentino in 1797; and, after the peace of 1815, it was restored to its old home at Heidelberg, where it now lies in the University library.
VI. Salmasius at once saw that it was quite a different work from the Planudean Anthology (to be mentioned presently). He collated it with WeiehePs edition of the same work, and copied out those epigrams which were not contained in the latter. The work thus discovered soon became known among the scholars of the day as the Anthologia inedita codicis Palatini. The MS. is written on parchment, of a quarto form, though somewhat longer than it is broad, and contains 710 pages, without reckoning three leaves at the commencement, which are stuck together, and which are also full of epigrams. The writing is by different hands, of different ages. The most ancient handwriting is supposed to be of the eleventh century. The time of the others can not be fixed with any certainty. Of the compiler Cephalas, and his labors, the only mention made is in the MS. itself. In one passage (p. 81) a marginal scholium states that Cephalas arranged the Garland of Meleager, dividing it into different chapters ; namely, amatory, dedicatory, monumental, and epideictic. The work itself, however, shows that this is not all that Cephalas did, and that the mention of Meleager, and of the titles of each section, are only given by way of example.
1 Smith, Diet. Bwgr., p. 387.