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2;o GREEK DIVINATION chap.

the art, are the raven,1 crow,2 heron,3 wren,4 woodpecker,5 dove,6 hoopoe,7 kingfisher,8 and all birds of the hawk, eagle, or vulture kind which the ancients habitually classed together.9 Greek augury apparently did not divide its field of vision into a templum, but took account merely of the right and left of the augur who stood facing north.

• But indeed we know very little about the Greek science of divining from birds. Almost all the cases which occur in Homer are simply portents, and, despite the significant testimony of the word oiWo?, in the historical period augury is one of the least important of the modes of divination. " La science augurale des Tir^sias et des Calchas etait deja une science morte pour les anciens historiens eux-memes."10 And when the learned Bouche Leclerq turns to the discussion of the Greek system his authorities for its classification are

1 Aelian, N.A. i. 48; Fulgentius, Mit. i. 13; Bode, Mythog. i. 115, ii. 22 ; Pliny, N.H. x. 12, 15 ; Porphyry, De abst. ii. 48.

2 Cicero, De div. i. 39 (85).

3 Plutarch, Mor. 405 D; Pausanias x. 29. 2.

4 Plutarch, Mor. 405 D.

5 See references for Picus, p. 265, and Pliny, N.H. x. 18.

6 Servius, Re. ix. 13.

7 Exc. Graec. Bart. Chron. Min. (Frick) p. 239.

8 Clem. Alex. Strom. i. 133. 8 See D'Arcy Thompson's Glossary of Greek Birds. 10 Bouche Leclerq, up. cit. i. p. 142.

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