The Ancient Library

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incantation takes place. The papyri give directions for calling the spirit into the corpse, and coercing it to reveal the future.1

There is yet another mode of divination which must be mentioned in connection with necromancy. The prophet who possesses or is possessed by a familiar, usually an ancestral ghost, is often to be met with in the Lower Culture.2 Among the Jews, besides the power of summoning spirits enjoyed, for example, by the Witch of Endor, diviners might possess a familiar ghost who speaks through their lips. The words 'ob and yidd? 'oni, which mean in the first instance the spirit of a deceased person, came to mean him or her that divines by such a spirit. Now the Septuagint trans­lates shoel 'ob, one who consults an 'ob, by the Word ejjacrTpifjivdo<;.s The eyyaarpifjLvOoi were apparently very common in antiquity. Clement refers to them as one of the principal types of pagan diviner.4 They were also called Eurykleidai from a notorious Eurykles,5 sterno-

1 See Abt, op. cit. p. 243 ; /caraSi/cy 5e fffaiyfrTt. a^ elire ei's rt> oCs rota ffrixovs, /cat &&a 0^\eis iravra, troi epti, Pap. Par. 2164. He refers also to the scene in Heliodoros, Aeth. vi. 14, p. 176. 2 ff. (Bekker); cf. the scene, Apuleius, Met. ii. 28.

2 Good examples are given by Haddon, Anth, Essays, p. 181 (Torres Straits), or Weeks, J.A.I, xl. p. 369 (Upper Congo).

3 Witton Davies, op. cit. pp. 86-89.

4 Clem. Alex. Protrept. i. n.

5 Aristophanes, Wasps 1019, with Scholia, Photius, Bib. 94,

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