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xi NECROMANCY 237
Pausanias' ghost belonged,1 and Phigalians.2 Cicero's superstitious friend Appius apparently practised necromancy, and it looks as though the belief that Avernus was a gate to Hades still existed in the neighbourhood in his day.3
In Homer, ghosts of the dead * appear to mortals as Patroklos appeared to Achilles. The ghost, in every respect exactly like the live Patroklos, stands over the head of Achilles as he lies asleep, and begs for rites of burial to enable him to join the company of the dead. Achilles tries to embrace the phantom, which with a cry vanishes like smoke beneath the earth.5 It is an impious necessity which forces one to treat so noble a passage of poetry with Philistine analysis, but it is our duty, I am afraid, to notice the following points. First, the ghost is the exact counterpart of the living man. Secondly, though Achilles sees it in a
1 Schol. Eur. Ale. 1128, iis 'urropel UXofrrapxos cV rats '0/aipiKacs
2 Paus. iii. 17, 9, story of Pausanias and Kleonike's ghost.
3 Cicero, J% div. i. 58 (132) ; Tusculans i. 16 (37).
4 In Mr. Lawson's account of "Revenants in Ancient Greece," op. cit. p. 412 foil., I can find no cogent evidence or argument. It is inspired solely by the will to believe that all the practices of modern Greece are derived from antiquity, and the plea that " when a dead man was required in literature to reappear, he was conventionally pourtrayed as a ghost, not as a walking- corpse," hardly convinces the dispassionate. The wish is father to the thought, and strange offspring he begets.
s Iliad xxiii. 65 foil.