The Ancient Library

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Archaeology verifies his statement. In the lower deposits of the temple at Ephesos artificial ivory and decorated astragali were found, which were probably used for divination or dedicated as tokens after a successful appeal to the oracle with natural knuckle-bones.1 On coins both early and late astragali appear with some frequency,2 and figures casting astragali before the image of a goddess are to be seen on coins of Hypaipa, Tarsos, Samos, and Ephesos.3

Still more familiar is the vase type, which represents two warriors casting lots in front

tols iepots dtrrpdyaXoi KfTvrat, ots 8t.afj.OiVT&JOVTai jSdXXopres 5t' auruiv. Iffrtov flri K\"f)poLS to irpiv e/iapretWro, Kal ^ffdv £iri t&v lep&v rpaTrfffiv d<rTpd"yaXoi, ofo ptirrovres ^avrevovTo.

1 Hogarth, Excavations at Ephesus, pp. 190-191, PI. xxxvi. Many astragali were found at the temple of Orthia at Sparta.

2 Catalogue of Coins in the British Museum. Italy, Iguvium, p. 30, No. 2 ; Central Italy, p. 46, Nos. 10-13 ; Central Italy (?), p. 60, No. 45 ; Luceria, p. 138, Nos. 14-15 ; p. 139, Nos. 43-46. Sicily, Himera (481-467 b.c.), p. 78, Nos. 29 and 30. Lycia, Pamphylia, and Pisidia, Selge in Pisidia, fourth century, p. 257, Nos. 14-15 ; PI. xxxix. 9 ; cf. Zeitschr. f. Num. v. p. 136, No. 14 ; PI. vi. 7. Lykaonia, Isauria, and Cilicia, Kelenderis, p. 53, No. 16 ; PI. ix. 10 ; Mallos, p. cxxi. Cyprus, Idalion, p. 26 foil., Nos. 10-19 ; PI. v. 9-12 ; Paphos, p. 35, Nos. 1-3 ; PI. vii. 1-3, p. Ixxii. ; 1-2, p. Ixvi.

3 Hypaipa (Gordian, two boys before Artemis Anaitis), Cat. Brit. Mus., Lydia, pp. Ixiv., 118, Nos. 59-60; PI. xii. n; Tarsos (early fourth century, girl before a plant ; obverse Athena seated), Cat. Brit. Mas., Lykaonia, etc. p. Ixxx. ; Samos (Saloninus, two children before Samian Hera), Cat. Brit. Mus., Ionia, p. 396, No. 391 ; PI. xxxvii. 18 ; Ephesos (Geta, two children before Ephesian Artemis), il>. pp. 87-88, Nos. 283-284.

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