The Ancient Library

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ultimately devised to provide a safe approach to the majesty of the deity.

This magical power, then, is primarily neither moral nor intentionally either benevolent or malevolent. In so far as it is fatal to persons who approach it without precaution, it is fatal simply because it is so overwhelmingly powerful. It is a later distinction that divides "medicine" into good and bad, and recognises the ^dpfunca

TroXXa pev eVtfXa pefAvy/jieva, TroXXa Se \wypd.1 Just as in Greek <f>dp/juucov and in Latin virus originally cover both good and bad medicine, so in Bechuanaland molemo includes both poisons and remedies.2 In the case of gods themselves, it is but gradually that the conception of their morality appears beside the conception of their power, and one of the most important stages here is the development of the dualism which distinguishes benevolent or malevolent spirits. The safe contact with mana, whether it be

1 Homer, O'dyssey iv. 230.

3 Frazer in Anth. Essays, p. 161, n. 4. Similarly the medicine-men of Greek tradition, the Idaean Dactyls, were divided into workers of spells and workers of charms, apujTfpoi [*.&, &s (p-qfft t&ep€Kv8'r)S, oi y&rfrfs avTwv • oi di avaMovres Serial, us 'EXXtlciKos, Schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 1129. The Gorgon's blood is powerful to heal or kill, Euripides, Ion 1010-1015; Apollodoros iii. 10. 3, 9. Compare the superstition with regard to lizards' livers : Ttpaios Se /cat NeoKX^s 6 tarpbs X^-youcrt t&s tfipijvas sijq tfiraTa exett/ ' Ka' r^ ^v G-TroKTetveiv, rb d£ tKelvov ireQvKtvai. avTlira\ov, triafci.i' ydp, Aelian, H.A. xvii. 15; F.H.G. i. p. 232.

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