The Ancient Library

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In many cases this is not the result of conscious thinking about the matter, but is the product of an inarticulate and subconscious feeling. And it is just this inarticulate and subconscious recognition of the necessity of finding a distinctive mode of expressing emotions concerned with the most awful and important aspects of life, which leads to the development in early magico-religion of in­cantation, spell, and ritual. When the first wizard chanted an incantation instead of saying it, he did not invent the chant on rational grounds, or suppose that for such and such reasons his new method would help the effective­ness of his action. His discovery can no more be analysed in terms of logic than that of the invention of articulate speech. The importance and impressiveness of his object led him unconsciously to the adoption of an impressive, abnormal method of expressing himself. The Australian black fellow points with his spear in the direction of his foe, chanting over it " Strike, kill." The spear, the words, and the gesture of pointing, as Mr. Marett would say, "help out the spell." As being a mode of expression they are logically distinguishable from that of which they are the mode of expression, i.e. the projection of the will, mana,

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