The Ancient Library

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is arunquiltha. But the methods and rites of magic and religion are often identical in char­acter, and the religion of one age becomes the magic of the next. In their earliest stages that power with which they are concerned is non-moral and powerful alike for good or evil. It is only gradually that mana becomes qualitatively differentiated, and the danger of union with the greatest powers becomes a moral test.1

In the superstitions of the higher culture there is room for a white magic; but that is only because the practices of white magic are survivals from earlier creeds, and as such they are usually banned by the church and regarded with suspicion by good ordinary folk.2 In the Lower Culture the only line which divides magic from religion is that of the dis­tinction between rites with a social or anti­social intent; in the higher culture orthodoxy marks the boundary. The methods of magic and religion have a common source in the ideas of union, sacrament, and the use of spiritual powers.

1 See below, p. 101.

2 Witness, for example, Lilly's laboured apology for his foolish if harmless astrological pretensions in the '' Introduction to the Impartial Reader" prefixed to England's Propheticall Merline (cf. Philostr. V. Apoll. v. 12), or Mackenzie's interesting discussion of the legal aspect of the distinction claimed between a white and black magic, Witches of Renfrewshire, p. 21.

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